Modern ready fireplaces are so various, what even it is difficult to make a choice among a set of models. There are the fireplaces attached to a wall, the fireplaces established in a corner, the fireplaces which are bending around a corner of a wall, suspended fireplaces, fireplaces with a through fire chamber etc. Practically any ready factory fireplace consists of a fire chamber, facing, devices of smoke removal and air distribution. Combination of functions of two or several parts in one device (for example, the device of distribution of air and facing) is possible. Ready fireplaces can be with opened or with the closed fire chamber therefore at once it is necessary to define that you want to have in the new house.
At an open fire chamber the place for burning of firewood is specially equipped, the design of a fire chamber can be different, but in all cases fire in such fireplaces isn’t separated from the room.
The closed fire chamber — is the camera for burning of the firewood, made of steel and cast iron (lining by ceramics is sometimes possible). The camera wall (one or more) is replaced with a door with thermoprotective glass which can be flat, oval, many-sided, folding, can rise up by means of the special mechanism (then the fire chamber turns in opened). The fireplaces having closed fire chambers, possess a number of advantages:
— safety: at the closed glass hit of burning coals and firewood on a floor or furniture near a fireplace is excluded;
— The efficiency in such fireplaces reaches 80 for comparison — in an open fire chamber 15 — 20
— purity in operation: there is a full combustion of firewood, coals doesn’t remain, and ashes are poured in a removable tray through a grid-iron lattice;
— allows to influence intensity and duration of burning of firewood degree of openness of the gate;
— allows to part heat on different rooms by means of air ducts.
Materials for facing of the chimney camera are various and very beautiful. Facing by the polished or chipped marble, polished granite, sandstone of different flowers and shades is generally applied. The tree in the form of decorative finishing of eaves, lateral walls and other elements of a fireplace is widely used. The fireplaces trimmed with tiles or a majolica are very beautiful.
The fire chamber of a fireplace and facing can be got in a set or separately. If you get a separate fire chamber and facing, you watch that the sizes of a fire chamber were less facing because the small fire chamber can be strengthened in the fireplace case by means of decorative metal lattices, and big, naturally, it is necessary to replace.
The weight of ready fireplaces fluctuates from 700 to 1300 kg depending on their sizes therefore it is necessary to check floor durability before installation. The floor has to be with an obligatory concrete coupler. Timber floors strengthen by means of an iron profile. The wall to which the fireplace is attached, has to be fire-resistant. If this wall external, it heat-insulate mineral wool.
The fire chamber of fireplaces is made of cast iron, its external surface ridge. It raises a thermolysis as edges increase a heating-up surface of a fire chamber. In some fire chambers at the exit the special gate with the drive in the form of a rope is arranged. If to close the gate, hot air will be late in a fire chamber for longer time, therefore, more heat will get to the room.
For modern fireplaces let out ready ceramic pipes. They consist of two layers. On an inside layer passes more heated air, less hot passes on an external layer at the expense of what the pipe not strongly heats up. Ceramic blocks of a pipe fasten by means of special mastic. The collected flue from ceramic blocks can be plastered or painted. If the flue in the house already exists, it is possible to attach a fireplace to it. In direct flues the tilt angle no more than 45 ° in for fireplaces with the closed fire chamber and no more than 30 ° for fireplaces with an open fire chamber is allowed. Sometimes the fireplace joins a flue by means of flexible corrugated pipes. The distance from the fire chamber basis until the end of a pipe has to be from 6 to 10м. If to make a pipe is higher, draft can be too strong and firewood will quickly burn through that very uneconomically. Section of flues for fireplaces is accepted 18 cm for small and 25 cm for big. It is necessary to remember that the more flue section, the is more difficult to kindle a fireplace. In a place of passing of a pipe through a roof an opening pressurize foam concrete or special sealant. Over a fire chamber establish a cap from the zinced steel. If in the two-storeyed house on each floor establish a fireplace, for each fireplace do a separate flue. On the second floor arrange a false wall in which hide a flue.
In some models of modern fireplaces the device for a grill or a barbecue is provided. These fireplaces are established in the open air more often.