The base is the main part of the house. At a choice of the base it is necessary to consider all nuances. Incorrectly or poor made base can lead to deformation in the future of all house. Having saved on the base, it is possible to invest then all life money and forces in strengthening of walls, warming of floors, etc.
The base happens several types, each of which is suitable or not for a certain type of designs of walls. From types of the bases distinguish column, tape and pile. There are also others, but these three most popular.
The column base – is carried out from a brick, concrete, wooden and ferroconcrete columns or metal pipes. On labor expenses and a material expense such bases are 1,5 – 2 times cheaper than the tape. In a certain district the column base is especially effective, for example house construction in weak soil at their deep freezing.
The column base under brick or concrete walls represents itself a design consisting of separate columns. The distance between columns has to be 1,5 – 2,5 meters. Them establish in corners of the house and in places of crossing of walls, is one depth lower than soil freezing. Нa day the sandy pillow or a stone plate is arranged. Section of columns from a brick has to be 51х51 cm, at construction of easy buildings angular columns from a brick with a section of 38х38 cm and intermediate 38х25 cm are allowed. Over columns the ferroconcrete crossing points perceiving weight of a wall are put. Column types of the base can be arranged the national teams ferroconcrete.
But the column base, except pluses, has shortcomings. For example, it isn’t suitable for construction of walls of big weight, and also there are certain difficulties at socle construction. Though these issues are resolved.
The tape base – is erected for buildings with heavy walls and overlappings, and also at the cellar device. Represents an integral or combined design. The tape base arrange so that its thickness was not less than thickness of a wall. For economy of materials it is allowed to make the lower part in the form of a sandy pillow. But its height has to be no more than a half of the base.
1 . sandy pillow.
2 . the concrete basic reinforced pillow.
3 . base wall.
4 . sand.
5 . засыпка firm soil.
6 . blind area.
7 . waterproofing from roofing material.
8 . socle wall, from a brick.
9 . ferroconcrete plate of overlapping.
10 . waterproofing.
11 . ferroconcrete floor.
The tape base has to be below soil freezing, differently cracks are possible.
The tape base happens integral and assembly. Concrete which is filled in in previously established timbering is applied to the device of the integral tape base. Advantage of such type of the base is that it will be waterproof, it can be used for walls of any form. For the device of the combined tape base ferroconcrete blocks which are mounted on the prepared concrete basis are used and put on cement mortar. The advantage of such base – is erected it much quicker and more simply, than integral, but has higher cost and can pass water.
The tape base also has the shortcomings which are represented in big labor and material inputs. But if you build the house for yourselves, to make the qualitative base is that costs.
Still there is a pile type of the base – it is applied in permafrost regions or in weak soil. Piles are hammered into the earth, and the plate is attached to its top. Also probably construction of such base by drilling of wells is lower than depth of freezing and a flood their concrete with preliminary installation of fittings. Such base isn’t afraid of deformations since piles are hammered lower than depth of freezing. Can settle in any weather. The only minus – complexity of the device of a socle. But it not the most difficult problem when you build the house.